The pandemic of COVID-19 spread to 210 countries. More than 3.2 million people had tested positive for the virus as of April 30, and 228.239 people had died. Many reports circulate about possible drugs, which cause public confusion.
A few types of drugs for treatingCOVID-19 are being studied. Most of the medications are antiviral drugs commonly used for other conditions. Among the antiviral drugs are Favipiravir (259793-96-9), or Avigan used to treat influenza in Japan; remdesivir, tested on Ebola; ritonavir-lopinavir, an antiviral drug administered to HIV patients; and ribavirin, used for hepatitis C and other viral hemorrhagic fevers.
The Food and Drug Monitoring Agency (BPOM) issued its guidelines for the care of COVID-19 in Indonesia. In Indonesia, favipiravir is the antiviral therapy to be given to moderately and severely symptomatic patients.
Other nations and the World Health Organization have still not published clear guidelines on treatment options for COVID-19. Still, we can see that different antiviral drugs are being used in other countries.
Favipiravir and remdesivir function against virus infections by inhibiting RNA - dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), an enzyme that viruses need in human cells to replicate their genetic material. Ribavirin also works by inhibiting RdRP, as well as otherwise interfering with viral genetic material replication. Additionally, ribavirin has also been shown to increase human cell immunity to viruses.
Lopinavir-ritonavir has been found to inhibit the operation of a form of protease required for replication by viruses. Virus replication is directly related to the severity of the illness. Data suggests that a higher viral load of SARS-CoV-2-a measure of the amount of virus in a patient's body is associated with more severe symptoms. Therefore, the more we can prevent viral replication and cause a lower viral load, the more likely we can reduce the disease 's severity.
Favipiravir, remdesivir, lopinavir-ritonavir, and ribavirin have indicated in vitro efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 – meaning in cell culture laboratory tests. There is no substantial evidence to date that any drugs are effective against the virus in humans, regardless of the few case studies claiming therapies have been active on patients. Several current antiviral drug clinical trials are expected to conclude by year-end. Only then can we obtain more data about which medicines, if any, treatCOVID-19 effectively.
Drugs are used to treat other diseases are also being tested for COVID-19 therapy. These are hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ). Repurposed drugs were used to treat malaria and chronic inflammatory diseases. HCQ is a CQ derivative which has less toxic effects than CQ.