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Water pipes were laid only towards the end of the 19th century, and then often only with one tap per building or per story.

Brick-and-mortar stoves fired with coal remained the norm until well into the second half of the century. Pots and kitchenware were typically stored on open shelves, and parts of the room could be separated from the rest using simple curtains. In contrast, there were no dramatic changes for the upper classes. The kitchen, located in the basement or the ground floor , continued to be operated by servants. In some houses, water pumps were installed, and some even had kitchen sinks and drains but no water on tap yet, except for some feudal kitchens in castles.

The kitchen became a much cleaner space with the advent of "cooking machines", closed stoves made of iron plates and fired by wood and increasingly charcoal or coal, and that had flue pipes connected to the chimney.

For the servants the kitchen continued to also serve as a sleeping room; they slept either on the floor, or later in narrow spaces above a lowered ceiling, for the new stoves with their smoke outlet no longer required a high ceiling in the kitchen. The kitchen floors were tiled; kitchenware was neatly stored in cupboards to protect them from dust and steam. A large table served as a workbench; there were at least as many chairs as there were servants, for the table in the kitchen also doubled as the eating place for the servants.

The urban middle class imitated the luxurious dining styles of the upper class as best as they could. Living in smaller apartments, the kitchen was the main room�here, the family lived. The study or living room was saved for special occasions such as an occasional dinner invitation. Because of this, these middle-class kitchens were often more homely than those of the upper class, where the kitchen was a work-only room occupied only by the servants.

Besides a cupboard to store the kitchenware , there were a table and chairs, where the family would dine, and sometimes�if space allowed�even a fauteuil or a couch. Gas pipes were first laid in the late 19th century, and gas stoves started to replace the older coal-fired stoves.

Gas was more expensive than coal, though, and thus the new technology was first installed in the wealthier homes. Where workers' apartments were equipped with a gas stove, gas distribution would go through a coin meter.

In rural areas, the older technology using coal or wood stoves or even brick-and-mortar open fireplaces remained common throughout. Gas and water pipes were first installed in the big cities; small villages were connected only much later. The trend to increasing gasification and electrification continued at the turn of the 20th century. In industry, it was the phase of work process optimization. Taylorism was born, and time-motion studies were used to optimize processes.

These ideas also spilled over into domestic kitchen architecture because of a growing trend that called for a professionalization of household work, started in the midth century by Catharine Beecher and amplified by Christine Frederick 's publications in the s.

Working-class women frequently worked in factories to ensure the family's survival, as the men's wages often did not suffice. Social housing projects led to the next milestone: the Frankfurt Kitchen. Developed in , this kitchen measured 1. It was built for two purposes: to optimize kitchen work to reduce cooking time and lower the cost of building decently equipped kitchens.

The initial reception Exclusive Garden Decor Yucaipa Scholar was critical: it was so small that only one person could work in it; some storage spaces intended for raw loose food ingredients such as flour were reachable by children. But the Frankfurt kitchen embodied a standard for the rest of the 20th century in rental apartments: the "work kitchen". It was criticized as "exiling the women in the kitchen", but post- World War II economic reasons prevailed.

The kitchen once more was seen as a work place that needed to be separated from the living areas. Practical reasons also played a role in this development: just as in the bourgeois homes of the past, one reason for separating the kitchen was to keep the steam and smells of cooking out of the living room. The equipment used remained a standard for years to come: hot and cold water on tap and a kitchen sink and an electrical or gas stove and oven.

Not much later, the refrigerator was added as a standard item. The concept was refined in the "Swedish kitchen" using unit furniture with wooden fronts for the kitchen cabinets. Soon, the concept was amended by the use of smooth synthetic door and drawer fronts, first in white, recalling a sense of cleanliness and alluding to sterile lab or hospital settings, but soon after in more lively colors, too. The reform kitchen was a forerunner to the later unit kitchen and fitted kitchen.

Unit construction since its introduction has defined the development of the modern kitchen. Pre-manufactured modules, using mass manufacturing techniques developed during World War II , greatly brought down the cost of a kitchen. Units which are kept on the floor are Modern Landscaping London Ontario India called "floor units", "floor cabinets", or "base cabinets" on which a kitchen worktop � originally often formica and often now made of granite , marble , tile or wood � is placed.

The units which are held on the wall for storage purposes are termed as " wall units " or "wall cabinets". In small areas of kitchen in an apartment, even a "tall storage unit" is available for effective storage. In cheaper brands, all cabinets are kept a uniform color, normally white, with interchangeable doors and accessories chosen by the customer to give a varied look.

In more expensive brands, the cabinets are produced matching the doors' colors and finishes, for an older more bespoke look. Starting in the s, the perfection of the extractor hood allowed an open kitchen again, integrated more or less with the living room without causing the whole apartment or house to smell.

Before that, only a few earlier experiments, typically in newly built upper-middle-class family homes, had open kitchens. Both had open kitchens, with high ceilings up to the roof and were aired by skylights. The extractor hood made it possible to build open kitchens in apartments, too, where both high ceilings and skylights were not possible. The re-integration of the kitchen and the living area went hand in hand with a change in the perception of cooking: increasingly, cooking was seen as a creative and sometimes social act instead of work.

And there was a rejection by younger home-owners of the standard suburban model of separate kitchens and dining rooms found in most � houses. Many families also appreciated the trend towards open kitchens, as it made it easier for the parents to supervise the children while cooking and to clean up spills. The enhanced status of cooking also made the kitchen a prestige object for showing off one's wealth or cooking professionalism.

Some architects have capitalized on this "object" aspect of the kitchen by designing freestanding "kitchen objects". However, like their precursor, Colani's "kitchen satellite", such futuristic designs are exceptions. Another reason for the trend back to open kitchens and a foundation of the "kitchen object" philosophy is changes in how food is prepared.

Whereas prior to the s most cooking started out with raw ingredients and a meal had to be prepared from scratch, the advent of frozen meals and pre-prepared convenience food changed the cooking habits of many people, who consequently used the kitchen less and less. For others, who followed the "cooking as a social act" trend, the open kitchen had the advantage that they could be with their guests while cooking, and for the "creative cooks" it might even become a stage for their cooking performance.

The "Trophy Kitchen" is equipped with very expensive and sophisticated appliances which are used primarily to impress visitors and to project social status, rather than for actual cooking. The ventilation of a kitchen, in particular a large restaurant kitchen, poses certain difficulties that are not present in the ventilation of other kinds of spaces.

In particular, the air in a kitchen differs from that of other rooms in that it typically contains grease, smoke and odours. The Frankfurt Kitchen of was made of several materials depending on the application.

The modern built-in kitchens of today use particle boards or MDF, decorated with a variety of materials and finishes including wood veneers, lacquer, glass, melamine, laminate, ceramic and eco gloss.

Very few manufacturers produce home built-in kitchens from stainless-steel. Until the s, steel kitchens were used by architects, but this material was displaced by the cheaper particle board panels sometimes decorated with a steel surface. Domestic or residential kitchen design is a relatively recent discipline. Beecher's "model kitchen" propagated for the first time a systematic design based on early ergonomics.

The design included regular shelves on the walls, ample work space, and dedicated storage areas for various food items. Beecher even separated the functions of preparing food and cooking it altogether by moving the stove into a compartment adjacent to the kitchen.

Christine Frederick published from a series of articles on "New Household Management" in which she analyzed the kitchen following Taylorist principles of efficiency, presented detailed time-motion studies, and derived a kitchen design from them. While this "work kitchen" and variants derived from it were a great success for tenement buildings, home owners had different demands and did not want to be constrained by a 6.

Nevertheless, kitchen design was mostly ad-hoc following the whims of the architect. In the U. It was there that the notion of the kitchen work triangle was formalized: the three main functions in a kitchen are storage, preparation, and cooking which Catharine Beecher had already recognized , and the places for these functions should be arranged in the kitchen in such a way that work at one place does not interfere with work at another place, the distance between these places is not unnecessarily large, and no obstacles are in the way.

A natural arrangement is a triangle , with the refrigerator, the sink, and the stove at a vertex each. This observation led to a few common kitchen forms, commonly characterized by the arrangement of the kitchen cabinets and sink, stove, and refrigerator:.

In the s, there was a backlash against industrial kitchen planning and cabinets with people installing a mix of work surfaces and free standing furniture, led by kitchen designer Johnny Grey and his concept of the "unfitted kitchen".

Modern kitchens often have enough informal space to allow for people to eat in it without having to use the formal dining room.

Such areas are called "breakfast areas", "breakfast nooks" or "breakfast bars" if the space is integrated into a kitchen counter. Kitchens with enough space to eat in are sometimes called "eat-in kitchens". During the s, flat pack kitchens were popular for people doing DIY renovating on a budget.

The flat pack kitchens industry makes it easy to put together and mix and matching doors, bench tops and cabinets. In flat pack systems, many components can be interchanged. Restaurant and canteen kitchens found in hotels , hospitals , educational and work place facilities, army barracks, and similar institutions are generally in developed countries subject to public health laws.

They are inspected periodically by public health officials, and forced to close if they do not meet hygienic requirements mandated by law. Canteen kitchens and castle kitchens were often the places where new technology was used first. For instance, Benjamin Thompson 's "energy saving stove", an early 19th-century fully closed iron stove using one fire to heat several pots, was designed for large kitchens; another thirty years passed before they were adapted for domestic use.

As of , restaurant kitchens usually have tiled walls and floors and use stainless steel for other surfaces workbench, but also door and drawer fronts because these materials are durable and easy to clean. Professional kitchens are often equipped with gas stoves, as these allow cooks to regulate the heat more quickly and more finely than electrical stoves.

Some special appliances are typical for professional kitchens, such as large installed deep fryers , steamers , or a bain-marie. The fast food and convenience food trends have changed the manner in which restaurant kitchens operate. Some of these type restaurants may only "finish" convenience food that is delivered to them, or just reheat completely prepared meals.

At the most they may grill a hamburger or a steak. But in the early 21st century, c-stores convenience stores are attracting greater market share by performing more food preparation on-site and better customer service than some fast food outlets.

The kitchens in railway dining cars have presented special challenges: space is limited, and, personnel must be able to serve a great number of meals quickly. Especially in the early history of railways, this required flawless organization of processes; in modern times, the microwave oven and prepared meals have made this task much easier. Kitchens aboard ships , aircraft and sometimes railcars are often referred to as galleys.

On yachts , galleys are often cramped, with one or two burners fueled by an LP gas bottle. Kitchens on cruise ships or large warships , by contrast, are comparable in every respect with restaurants or canteen kitchens. On passenger airliners , the kitchen is reduced to a pantry. The crew's role is to heat and serve in-flight meals delivered by a catering company.

An extreme form of the kitchen occurs in space, e. The astronauts ' food is generally completely prepared, dehydrated , and sealed in plastic pouches before the flight. The kitchen is reduced to a rehydration and heating module.

Outdoor areas where food is prepared are generally not considered kitchens, even though an outdoor area set up for regular food preparation, for instance when camping , might be referred to as an "outdoor kitchen". An outdoor kitchen at a campsite might be placed near a well, water pump, or water tap, and it might provide tables for food preparation and cooking using portable campstoves.

Some campsite kitchen areas have a large tank of propane connected to burners, so that campers can cook their meals. Military camps and similar temporary settlements of nomads may have dedicated kitchen tents, which have a vent to enable cooking smoke to escape.

In schools where home economics, food technology previously known as " domestic science " , or culinary arts are taught, there are typically a series of kitchens with multiple equipment similar in some respects to laboratories solely for the purpose of teaching.

These consist of multiple workstations, each with its own oven , sink , and kitchen utensils, where the teacher can show students how to prepare food and cook it. More than years ago, the ancient Chinese used the ding for cooking food. The ding was developed into the wok and pot used today. Many Chinese people believe that there is a Kitchen God who watches over the kitchen for the family. According to this belief, the god returns to heaven to give a report to the Jade Emperor annually about this family behavior.

Every Chinese New Year Eve, families will gather together to pray for the kitchen god to give a good report to heaven and wish him to bring back good news on the fifth day of the New Year.

The most common cooking equipment in Chinese family kitchens and restaurant kitchens are woks, steamer baskets Garden Decor For Sale London and pots. The fuel or heating resource was also important technique to practice the cooking skills. Traditionally Chinese were using wood or straw as the fuel to cook food. A Chinese chef had to master flaming and heat radiation to reliably prepare traditional recipes.

Chinese cooking will use a pot or wok for pan frying, stir frying, deep frying or boiling. Daidokoro is the place where food is prepared in a Japanese house. When separating a family, it was called Kamado wo wakeru , which means "divide the stove".

Kamado wo yaburu lit. Many different methods of cooking exist across the country, and the structure and the materials used in constructing kitchens have varied depending on the region. For example, in north and central India, cooking used to be carried out in clay ovens called "Chulha"s, fired by wood, coal or dried cowdung. In households where members observed vegetarianism, separate kitchens were maintained to cook and store vegetarian and non-vegetarian food.

Religious families often treat the kitchen as a sacred space. Indian kitchens are built on an Indian architectural science called vastushastra. Improve your outreach by connecting with authority bloggers in your domain area. Feedspot media database has over k Influential Bloggers in over niche categories. Email us us the type of bloggers you want to reach out at anuj feedspot.

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